References: Pain Assessment

The Health Risk Assessments have been created by A.D.A.M. Inc. The assessment questions and their corresponding health messages are based on the following references and physician review:

Adams MCB, Clauw D. Chronic Widespread Pain. In: Benzon HT, Rathmell JP, Wu CL, Turk DC, Argoff CE, Hurley RW, eds. Practical Management of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 29.

American Heart Association website. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina). http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Angina-Pectoris-Stable-Angina_UCM_437515_Article.jsp#.WLkvHPl97IU. Updated Sep 19, 2016. Accessed March 03, 2017

American Heart Association website. Unstable Angina. http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/DiagnosingaHeartAttack/Unstable-Angina_UCM_437513_Article.jsp#.WLkwLvl97IU. Updated September 19, 2016. Accessed March 03, 2017.

Barnsley L. Neck pain. In: Hochberg MC, Silman AJ, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Weisman MH eds. Rheumatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 71.

Bartleson JD, Black DF, Swanson JW. Cranial and Facial Pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 20.

Boden WE. Angina pectoris and stable ischemic heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 71.

Bope ET, Kellerman RD. Rheumatology and the Musculoskeletal System. In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 12.

Bril V, England J, Franklin GM, et al. Evidence-based guideline: Treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy: report of the American Academy of Neurology, the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine, and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Neurology. 2011 May 17;76(20):1758-65. PMID: 21482920 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21482920.

Crofford LJ. Fibromyalgia. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O’Dell JR, eds. Kelley & Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 52.

El Abd O, Amadera JED. Low back strain or sprain. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 48.

Felson DT. Treatment of Osteoarthritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, MD, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR eds. Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 100.

Fenster BE, Lee-Chiong TL, Gebhart GF, Matthay RA. Chest pain. In: Mason RJ, Ernst JD, King TE Jr, et al. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 31.

Gardocki RJ, Park AL. Degenerative Disorders of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine. In: Azar FM, Beaty JH, Canale ST, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 39.

Garza I, Schwedt TJ, Robertson CE, Smith JH. Headache and Other Craniofacial Pain. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL eds, Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 103.

Matzkin EG, Hampton DM, Gill TA. Shoulder diagnosis and decision making. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 43.

Mayer EA. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Dyspepsia, Chest Pain of Presumed Esophageal Origin, and Heartburn. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 137.

Nath A. Meningitis: Bacterial, Viral, and Other. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 412.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health website. Chronic Pain: In Depth. https://nccih.nih.gov/health/pain/chronic.htm. Updated September, 2016. Accessed February 13, 2017.

Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 420.

Smith KA. Abdominal pain. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gaushe-Hill M, eds. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 24.

Tan EW, Cosgarea AJ. Patellar instability. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 104.

Tauben D, Theodore BR. Measurement-Based Stepped Care Approach to Interdisciplinary Chronic Pain Management. In: Benzon HT, Rathmell JP, Wu CL, Turk DC, Argoff CE, Hurley RW eds. Practical Management of Pain. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 4.

Weinstein JM, Wang MY. Headache and Facial Pain. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, eds. Ophthalmology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9.22.

Yin AX, Wilkins AN, Philips EM. Osteoarthritis. In: Frontera WR, Silver JK, Rizzo TD Jr, eds. Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 139.